There are also significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most provinces of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Suriname, Saudi Arabia and the Netherlands.The Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Mataram, Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Samin, Naganese, Banyumasan, etc.The Sri sultan became Governor of Yogyakarta, and the Prince of Pakualaman became vice-governor; both were responsible to the President of Indonesia.
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A majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with a minority identifying as Christians and Hindus.
However, Javanese civilization has been influenced by more than a millennium of interactions between the native animism Kejawen and the Indian Hindu—Buddhist culture, and this influence is still visible in Javanese history, culture, traditions, and art forms.
Various kingdoms of Java were actively involved in the spice trade in the sea route of the Silk Road.
Although not major spice producers, these kingdoms were able to stockpile spice by trading for it with rice, of which Java was a major producer.
With a sizeable global population, the Javanese are considered significant as they are the fourth largest ethnic group among Muslims, in the world, after the Arabs, Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesian origins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, and migrated through the Philippines The centre of Javanese culture and politics was moved towards the eastern part of the island when Mpu Sindok (r.
929-947) moved the capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of the Brantas River in the 10th century CE.Like the rest of the Dutch East Indies, Java was captured by the Empire of Japan during World War II.With Japan's defeat, independence was proclaimed in the new Republic of Indonesia.Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediri's rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara.However, Jayakatwang's reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya with the help of invading Mongol troops in March 1293.While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles was significant, and included the re-discovery of Borobudur.